Saturday, 21 August 2010

Employability Skills

Employability skills (kompetensi untuk bekerja) dapat diartikan sebagai keterampilan dan kemampuan generik atau kompetensi kunci yang terdiri dari 8 kelompok:

1. Communication
Communication takes many forms to contribute to successful work outcomes, and may include:
  • Creating documents – everything from maintenance documentation to in-depth research on the competition.
  • Reading and interpreting documentation – this can include staying up to date with the latest policies and procedure manuals, or interpreting complex tender documentation.
  • Oral communication – such as how to convey your message, or more complex skills like empathising or persuading that may be required for interactions with staff or customers.
  • Information Communication Technology – even though technology exists as a separate
  • Employability Skill, its inclusion here indicates the central role that technology plays in workplace communication.
  • Language – this includes competency in English, or other relevant languages, as well as an ability to communicate effectively in environments where there are those who speak English as a second language.
  • Numeracy – an ability to work with numbers and understand mathematical concepts is a skill area, much like language, which underpins an individual’s ability to communicate.

2. Teamwork

Some of the teamwork skills learners may need to develop include:
  • Supporting team members – this typically needs to be done by supervisors as well as team members. Supervisors may need to monitor worker progress and provide assistance where necessary, and team members may need to see where there are bottlenecks in the work and help each other out.
  • Contributing to positive team dynamics – this is a responsibility for all team members, and includes dealing appropriately with conflict.
  • Understanding one’s relationship and accountability to other team members.
  • Working with people who vary in their age, gender, race, religion or political persuasion.
  • Working autonomously in the interest of shared team goals and objectives.

3. Problem solving
Some of the ways in which problem solving is used in the workplace are:
  • In contingency situations – when staff are required to identify and resolve non-standard situations which may arise.
  • Using troubleshooting equipment – including standard checks and maintenance as well as addressing breakdowns that may occur in the course of use.
  • Providing customer service – working with customers to resolve problems and provide options for complaints resolution.
  • For planning, strategy and resource allocation, which contribute to the avoidance or resolution of contingency situations.
  • For continuous improvement processes – an important means to ensure that key lessons are learned and integrated following workplace problems.
  • Research, which is a problem solving process in and of itself, and can also contribute to effective resolution of problems.

4. Initiative and enterprise
Initiative and enterprise relates to:
  • Change Management – both individual responses to change within the organisation and in leadership skills demonstrated in implementing change.
  • Identifying opportunities – all members of an organisation or team should be encouraged to share ideas to improve work practices and opportunities for the growth of the organisation.
  • Reflecting on one’s own practice for improvement – this is the ability to critically reflect on and evaluate one’s own work habits. It is an important step toward fostering an innovative workplace.
  • Engaging colleagues – an innovative work-place culture is one where all individuals actively engage with other colleagues in sharing work-place knowledge.
  • Adapting to new situations.

5. Planning and organising

Planning and organising can apply to:
  • Time management – an individual’s ability to meet time based requirements and deadlines
  • Project management skills – an ability to manage multiple tasks and resources simultaneously
  • Planning, strategy and resource allocation – participating in and leading processes which contribute to the establishment of key directions for the organisation
  • Achieving goals and targets – an ability to complete the tasks assigned
  • Research – collecting, analysing and organising information to inform subsequent work processes
  • Scheduling – tasks, rosters or delivery, for example.

6. Self-management

The ways in which they do this can include:
  • Assessing and evaluating their own performance to identify areas for improvement
  • Identifying and seeking out appropriate development opportunities, both internal and external to the organisation
  • Eliciting feedback, as appropriate from peers, subordinates and superiors
  • Knowing the organisation, the work role, and its limits of authority
  • Working safely.

7. Learning

It recognises that learning is a continual process that takes many forms in the workplace and includes:
  • Learning from past experience so that new and better ways of working are practised
  • Individuals taking responsibility for strengthening their skill base so that they can move their career in the direction they want
  • Managers knowing the strengths and weaknesses of their employees and assisting them to build their skills for their job and for career development
  • Contributing to a learning environment through openly sharing knowledge and experiences
  • Developing an awareness of learning methods and options, such as training, shadowing others, job rotation, online options, coaching and mentoring
  • Actively using feedback from managers, subordinates and peers to improve performance
  • Keeping well informed of updates and changes to organisational policies, procedures and regulations.

8. Technology

In the workplace we would see this skill applied when people are:
  • Using information technology to assist in communication and support management and planning functions
  • Operating machinery and technologies which assist in the completion of routine, heavy or complex tasks
  • Troubleshooting machinery and technology
  • Applying OHS knowledge to appropriately use technology, be it information technology or machinery.

Manfaat Standar Kompetensi

Manfaat Standar Kompetensi

Standar kompetensi dapat dimanfaatkan pada lembaga pendidikan dan pelatihan, perusahaan, dan lembaga sertifikasi profesi.

Lembaga pendidikan dan pelatihan :
Standar kompetensi dimanfaatkan sebagai acuan dalam penyusunan kurikulum dan pengembangan pengajaran, sekaligus mendorong konsistensi dalam menyelenggarakan pendidikan dan pelatihan, serta menetapkan kualifikasinya.

Dunia usaha/perusahaan
Standar kompetensi dimanfaatkan sebagai alat manajemen, terutama dalam :

  • Menentukan organisasi kerja dan perencanaan jabatan.
  • Membantu dalam evaluasi/penilaian karyawan dan pengembangannya
  • Membantu dalam merekrut tenaga kerja
  • Mengembangkan program pelatihan yang khas/spesifik sesuai dengan kebutuhan perusahaan.

Pada lembaga sertifikasi profesi

Standar kompetensi dimanfaatkan sebagai acuan dalam penyusunan :

  • klasifikasi dan kualifikasi,
  • kriteria pengujian dan instrumen/alat ukur pengujian.

Tentang Standar Kompetensi

Apakah Standar Kompetensi itu ?

Standar Kompetensi adalah pernyataan-pernyataan mengenai pelaksanaan tugas di tempat kerja yang digambarkan dalam bentuk hasil output :
  • Apa yang diharapkan dapat dilaksanakan oleh karyawan.
  • Tingkat kesempurnaan pelaksanaan kerja yang diharapkan dari karyawan.
  • Bagaimana menilai bahwa kemampuan karyawan telah berada pada tingkat yang diharapkan.

Kegunaan Standar Kompetensi diantaranya adalah :
  • Lebih efesien dalam biaya, dan membuat pendidikan dan pelatihan keterampilan lebih relevan.
  • Pembentukan keterampilan yang lebih baik untuk dapat bersaing ditingkat internasional.
  • Penilaian yang lebih konsisten.
  • Adanya hubungan yang lebih baik antara pelatihan, penilaian dan pemberian sertifikat.
  • Kemungkinan diakuinya pelajaran-pelajaran yang telah diterima sebelumnya.

Untuk Tingkat industri dan perusahaan :
  • Pengidentifikasian yang lebih baik mengenai keterampilan yang dibutuhkan.
  • Pemahaman yang lebih baik mengenai hasil pelatihan.
  • Berkurangnya pengulangan dalam usaha pengadaan pelatihan.
  • Peningkatan dalam perekrutan tenaga baru.
  • Penilaian hasil pelatihan yang lebih konsisten dan dapat diandalkan.
  • Pengidentifikasian kompetensi di tempat kerja yang lebih akurat.
Standar Kompetensi Kerja Nasional Indonesia ( SKKNI ) adalah rumusan kemampuan kerja yang mencakup aspek pengetahuan, keterampilan dan/atau keahlian serta sikap kerja yang relevan dengan pelaksanaan tugas dan syarat jabatan yang ditetapkan sesuai dengan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan.